Friday, September 3, 2010

The commemorative Goa e as pracas do Norte published in 1966 by the Junta de Investigacoes do Ultramar in Lisbon provides a valuable source of textual and illustrated information.

Jardim Municipal in Pangim renamed Azad Maidan.  At the end of the road is the former Academia Militar de Goa which in 1836 became the Bibliotheca Publica.

Saturday, July 25, 2009

Portuguese Impressions of the Zamorin

'The Zamorin was almost naked, having only a piece of white cotton round his waist, wrought with gold. On his head he wore a cap of cloth of gold resembling a helmet. In his ears he had rich jewels of diamonds, sapphires, and pearls, two of the latter being as large as walnuts. His arms, from the elbows to the wrists, were covered with golden bracelets, set with numberless precious stones of great value; and his legs, from the knees to the ankles, were similarly adorned. His fingers and toes had numerous rings, and on one of his great toes he wore a ruby of great size and wonderful brilliancy. One of his diamonds was bigger than a large bean. All these were greatly surpassed by his girdle of gold and jewels, which was altogether inestimable, and was so brilliant that it dazzled the eyes of the beholders. Beside the zamorin was a rich throne or state chair, all of gold and jewels; and his andor , in which he had been carried from the palace was of similar richness, and stood near him. He was attended by twenty trumpeters, seventeen of whom had silver trumpets, and three of them gold, all the mouth-pieces being finely wrought and set with jewels….On entering the hall, and seeing the splendid state of the zamorin, Cabral would have kissed his hand, as is the custom of Europe; but was informed that this was not customary among them, and therefore sat down in a chair near the king, which was appointed for him as an especial honour. He then delivered his letter of credit from the king of Portugal, written in Arabic, and then said, that the king his master, willing to cultivate trade and friendship with the zamorin and his subjects, had given him orders to require permission to establish a factory or house of trade in Calicut, which should always be supplied with every kind of merchandise that was in demand; and requested the zamorin to supply a sufficient loading of spices for the ships under his command, which he was ready to pay for, either by means of the commodities he had on board, or in ready money. The zamorin seemed or affected to be pleased with the embassy, and said that the king of Portugal was welcome to every thing in his city of which he was in need….

The Departure of Cabral's Fleet to India

The departure of Pedro Alvares Cabral's, partially Florentine financed thirteen strong fleet, from Lisbon to India, was described by various chronicles of the period such as this classic account: '…The fleet being in full readiness, the king went in procession, on Sunday the 7th of March 1500, to hear mass at the monastery of Belem, accompanied by the Captain-General, whom he took along with himself behind the curtain in the royal seat, to do him the more honor. After mass, Don Diego Ortis, Bishop of Viseu, preached a sermon, in which he gave high praise to Cabral for undertaking the command of this expedition, as serving not only the king his temporal master, but the eternal GOD his spiritual Lord, drawing many comparisons in his favour from the Grecian and Roman histories. Mass being ended, a banner of the royal arms of Portugal was delivered to the bishop, who solemnly blessed it, and returned it to the king, who delivered it to Cabral, that it might be displayed at his main-top. The bishop then, gave a bonnet to the general, which had been blessed by the pope, and placed a rich jewel with his own hands on his head, and gave him his blessing. When these ceremonies were ended, the king accompanied the captain-general to the water side, where he and the other captains of the fleet took leave of the king, kissing his hands, the king giving them Gods blessing and his own; after which all went on board, and the whole fleet saluted the king by discharging all the ordnance of all the ships: But the wind being foul, the fleet could not depart that day, and the king returned to Lisbon….

Monday, July 20, 2009

Statue in Santarem, commemorating the navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral, who attacked the port of Calicut in Malabar following the massacre of fifty four Portuguese by Arabs. He then sailed on to Cochin and Cannanur which became allies of Portugal against Calicut.
Calicut, in the sixteenth century, one of the major ports on the western seaboard of India which traded as far as Egypt and China until the arrival of the Portuguese in 1498, resulting in a barrage of bombardments each time yearly fleets arrived from Lisbon. From Braun and Hogenberg's Civitates Orbis Terrarum. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Jewish National National & University Library.

Sunday, July 19, 2009

'The First Mass in Brazil'

'The First Mass in Brazil' by the Brazilian painter Victor Meirelles completed in 1861 and exhibited shortly afterwards in Paris commemorating the mass celebrated by the Portuguese and indigenous Indians in Brazil during the expedition of Pedro Alvares Cabral to India in 1500.
Pedro Alvares Cabral celebrating Easter on the shores of Brazil with indigenous tribes before resuming his journey to India.

The Discovery of Brazil en route to India

In the summer of 1500, the second Portuguese expedition to India, commanded by Pedro Alvares Cabral, following that of Vasco da Gama in 1497-98, accidentally sailed off course and ended up on the coast of Brazil. A Portuguese chronicler of the period described the events that followed: 'The fleet on the 24th of April, came in sight of land. This was cause of much joy, as it was supposed to be a country which had not been discovered by De Gama…Cabral immediately sent off the master of his ship in a small boat to examine the country, who reported that it appeared pleasant and fertile, with extensive woods and many inhabitants. The fleet was brought to anchor, and the master sent again on shore to examine more narrowly into the state of the country and its inhabitants. His account was that the natives were well proportioned, and of a swarthy colour, armed with bows and arrows, and all naked. A storm arising at night, the fleet weighed anchor and stood along; the coast, till they found a good harbour, in which they all came to anchor, naming it Puerto Seguro, or the Safe Port, as it was quite secure in all weathers. Our men took two of the natives in an almadia or canoe, who were brought to the admiral, but no one could understand their language. They had therefore apparel given them, and were set on shore much pleased. This encouraged the rest of the natives to mix with our people in a friendly manner; but finding nothing to detain him here, the general determined to take in a supply of water, not knowing when he might have another opportunity. Next day, being in Easter week, a solemn mass was said on shore under a pavilion, and a sermon was preached by Fra Henrique. During service, many of the natives gathered around, who seemed very merry, playing and leaping about, and sounding cornets, horns, and other instruments. After mass, the natives followed the general to his boat, singing and making merry…'
Society of Jesus missionary in the eighteenth century.

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

Mystery over Georgian Queen's Relics at Old Goa Continues

Tomb of Alvares Pedro Cabral who led the second expedition to India after Vasco da Gama in 1500. It ended as a colossal failure with only half of the original ships returning safetly to Portugal. The tomb is situated in the church of Our Lady of Grace in Santarem. Cabral is burried with his wife.

Pedro Alvares Cabral: Drama Histórico em Quatro Actos

Pedro Alvares Cabral: drama histórico em quatro actos is a play published by Castello Branco and Alabern in Lisbon in 1900 commeorating the life of the explorer Cabral who accidentally diocvered Brazil en route to India:

Monday, March 23, 2009

Ruins of Saint Paul's College in Old Goa where Francis Xavier taught and a Mughal mosque in Bicholim built in the course of a joint offensive by Mahratta and dissident Mughal troops against the Portuguese.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

An Historical Sketch of Goa The Metropolis of the Portuguese Settlements in India

An Historical Sketch of Goa, the Metropolis of the Portuguese Settlements in India: With an Account of the Present State of that Celebrated City, and of the Surrounding Territories Under its Immediate Jurisdiction, Collected from the Most Authentic Sources. Denis Louis Cottineau de Kloguen. Gazette Press, 1831:

African Portuguese troops stationed in Goa in the 1950's marching past the Bom Basilica.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

A stone Nandi situated to the right of the central shrine in the 13th century Kadamba temple in Opa, Ponda.

The First Portuguese India Company 1628-33

The First Portuguese India Company, 1628-33. A. R. Disney. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 30, No. 2 (May, 1977), pp. 242-258 (article consists of 17 pages). Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Economic History Society.

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782), who ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal and an end to the Inquisition in Goa in the eighteenth century.

Portuguese Rule in Goa 1510-1961

P. J. Griffiths reviewed work: Portuguese Rule in Goa, 1510-1961. by R. P. Rao. Nehru seizes Goa. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 40, No. 3 (Jul., 1964), p. 555 (review consists of 1 page).

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